Harvard:
Rafeq, A.-K. 1991, "Craft Organization, Work Ethics, and the Strains of Change in Ottoman Syria", in Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 495--511. American Oriental Society.
APA:
Rafeq, A.-K. (1991). Craft Organization, Work Ethics, and the Strains of Change in Ottoman Syria. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 111 (3) , 495--511. American Oriental Society.
Chicago:
Rafeq, Abdul-Karim. 1991. "Craft Organization, Work Ethics, and the Strains of Change in Ottoman Syria." In Journal of the American Oriental Society, 111 , no. 3: 495--511. American Oriental Society.
MLA:
Rafeq, Abdul-Karim. "Craft Organization, Work Ethics, and the Strains of Change in Ottoman Syria." Journal of the American Oriental Society. 111.3 (1991): 495--511.
Citation within the text:
(Rafeq 1991)
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BibTeX:
@article{rafeq1991craft,
  source = {jstor},
  ISSN = {0003-0279},
  abstract = {Craft organizations (guilds), whose origins in the Arab-Islamic countries are controversial, developed in a highly sophisticated way in these countries under Ottoman rule. Known as tawaif (sing. taifa) in Ottoman Syria and in other Ottoman provinces, these organizations were autonomous. They regulated the affairs of their members, distributed collective taxes among them, controlled the quality of their products, and fixed the prices of their commodities. The stability of the economic and social life in Syria owes much to these organizations. Religio-ethnic tolerance was a major characteristic of these organizations which included Muslims, Christians and Jews within their ranks. Through work ethics, merit was the primary consideration for admission into, and promotion within, the craft. Under the impact of industrialized Europe, locally manufactured goods were unable to measure up to the competition of European goods which flooded the local markets in the 19th century. Bankruptcies were reported among local manufacturers, wages were lowered, causing friction between journeymen and masters, and emigration abroad progressed. Local manufacturers, however, were not altogether resigned to their fate. They pooled resources, introduced partnerships cutting across religious barriers, and produced competitive goods meeting local needs. A nascent local bourgeoisie thus began to take shape.},
  author = {Rafeq, Abdul-Karim},
  copyright = {Copyright 1991 American Oriental Society},
  journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
  jstor_articletype = {Full Length Article},
  jstor_date = {199107/199109},
  jstor_formatteddate = {Jul. - Sep., 1991},
  month = {jul},
  number = {3},
  pages = {495--511},
  publisher = {American Oriental Society},
  title = {Craft Organization, Work Ethics, and the Strains of Change in Ottoman Syria},
  url = {http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279%28199107%2F09%29111%3A3%3C495%3ACOWEAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T},
  volume = {111},
  year = {1991},
}